Ser VS Estar

Ser (to be)

  1. To show the origin of the people (with de)

Soy de México. I am from Mexico.

  1. To express characteristics of things or people.

Soy mexicano. I am Mexican.

  1. To express time, dates, season, and months.

Son las 3 de la mañana. It’s 3 in the morning.

  1. When followed by a noun.

Son mis padres. They are my parents.

Estar (to be)

  1. To express location

Estoy en la casa ahora. I am at home now.

  1. To express feeling

Estoy muy feliz. I am so happy.

  1. To express weather condition

Está nublado. It’s cloudy.

  1. To look

Estás muy hermosa esta noche. Tonight, you look beautiful.

  1. To express progressive, what is happening right now.

Estoy estudiando mucho. I am studying a lot right now.

*Unlike progressive form in English, progressive in Spanish only tells you what to do right now.

Voy a estudiar este fin de semana. I am studying this weekend.

Estoy estudiando ahora. I am studying right now.